Ambroxol is the active metabolite of bromhexine and it has been proven that this metabolite possesses a greater bronchosecretolytic effect than bromhexine. It improves sputum rheology by hydrating mechanism leading to liquefaction of mucus in the lumen of respiratory tract, thus facilitating expectoration of mucus and reducing dyspnea. It stimulates production of phospholipids of surfactant by alveolar cells, thus contributing to the lowering of superficial tension in the alveoli. It also reduces bronchial hyperactivity. Ambroxol has anti inflammatory properties owing to the inhibitory effect on the production of cellular cytokines and arachidonic acid metabolites. In patients with COPD it traditionally improves airway patency.
Dosage & Administration
Average daily dose (preferably after meal):
- 0-6 months: 0.5 ml 2 times a day
- 6-12 months: 1 ml 2 times a day
- 1-2 years: 1.25 ml 2 times a day
- 2-5 years: 2.5 ml (1/2 teaspoonful) 2-3 times a day
- 5-10 years: 5 ml (1 teaspoonful) 2-3 times a day
- 10 years and adults: 10 ml (2 teaspoonful) 3 times a day.
Sustained release capsule: Adult and children over 12 years old: 1 capsule once daily.
Ambroxol should not be taken simultaneously with antitussives (e.g.Codeine) because phlegm, which has been liquefied by Ambroxol might not be expectorated.
Contraindicated in known hypersensitivity to Ambroxol or Bromhexine.
Gastrointestinal side effects like epigastric pain, stomach overfill feeling may occur occasionally. Rarely allergic responses such as eruption, urticaria or angioneurotic edema have been reported.
Pregnancy & Lactation
Teratogenic and fetal toxicity studies have shown no harmful effect of Ambroxol. However, it is advised not to use it in pregnancy, especially during the1st trimester. Safety during lactation has not been established yet.
Precautions & Warnings
Ambroxol should be given cautiously to patients with gastric and duodenal ulceration or convulsive disorders. Patients with hepatic and renal insufficiency should take it with caution.
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